Wednesday, March 25, 2020
The Green Knight Essay Page eleven is very near the beginning of the story, and so the page reveals the appearance of the green knight, the previous pages describe how the knights are in a banquet at Christmas and the page begins as they are about to start dinner. It starts of with Now, on the subject of supper Ill say no more as its obvious to everyone that no one went without. This shows that because they are knights they have earned their dinner, as he says he has said enough, also in this sentence he mentions that no one went without so there was obviously a lot of wealth involved. We will write a custom essay on The Green Knight specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The next sentence says Because another sound, a new sound, suddenly drew near, which might signal the king to sample his supper, the repetition of sound, gives the effect of the sound getting closer and closer. Then when it says which might signal the king to start his supper this tells us the king is very wealthy and need to taste it and he might send it back, this could show he was a fussy king. The story then says for barely had the horns finished blowing their breath and with starters just spooned to their seated guests, the horns had barely finished blowing their breath, this means it could have been a timed entrance, deliberately to make it look grand. The guests were spooned their soup, like babies being spoon fed, this could make reference to them not actually being very tough. It then says a fearful form appeared, framed in the door: This suggests that not only was the guest so big he filled the doorway, but also made sure they could not escape, an as if it was fate that one of them would have to undertake his challenge. Then the list begins on how he looks a mountain of a man, immeasurably high, a hulk of a human from head to hips, so long and thick in his loins an his limbs I should genuinely judge him to be half-giant the first sentence is quite a mouthful, just as he might be quite a sight, then skipping on a few sentences it mentions he is a half giant, this is a realistic size, it is still huge, but not unbelievable (as it would have been if it had said he was a giant). It then goes on to say the mightiest of mortals this makes you think is he really mortal, or actually godly like. Then after telling us about his hugeness describes how his boy is actually slender and handsome despite the bulk and brawn of his body his stomach and waist were slender and sleek. In fact in all features he was finely formed it seemed. This made me think of superman, he seems perfect in build, and no surprises Amazement seized their minds no soul had ever seen a knight of such a kind entirely emerald green it says they were amazed an they are knights, they are meant to have travelled the world, so this must be a sight, then it says emerald green, I imagine emerald as glistening in the light, on page 30, when the months pass the leaves glisten, and this reins Gawain of the green knight, then again on page 41 it says that the lords castle was glistening, suspicious. Page 23 starts off, as Sir Gawain is about to strike the green knight, it says the first three lines in the present tense to make things more exciting, then further down the page it says that bright steel blade took a bite from the floor this suggests that the axe was maybe mystical as it was hungry itself and wanted to eat Gawain also by using bite I find that it is quite, using bite as the word rather than chunk or any of the other words he could of used. Later on in the poem on that page he quotes blood gutters brightly against his green gown we can only guess that his blood is red, it does not say, but if it was, his outfit would now make the colours of Christmas, red gold and green, the gold coming from the braids in his hair and the jewellery he wears. My favourite part of this page is the end it says the court was deadened now with dread this is quite ironic because though Gawain cut off the green knights head, it is now the court that is dead.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Strategic Management Essay Example Strategic Management Essay Strategic Management Essay Introduction For a company to win in its concerns. strategic direction must be its chief docket. Pull offing transnational companies can be a feverish occupation and can stop up in confusion if non good structured. Strategic direction is based on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s top brass of direction. The top direction of the company is ever at the centre of determination doing procedure on behalf the existent proprietors of the company. This set up is in charge of mobilising resources and structuring the company to fit the external concern environments. Explicating policies. planning and scene of aims is the managementÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns. Strategic direction besides deals with the accomplishment of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision through fast tracking the mission. plans and undertakings. In strategic direction. there is a calculated attempt by the direction to strike a scorecard that is balanced through measuring the general public presentation of the concern and the stairss toward the accomplishment of the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ set nonsubjective. Strategy in any concern or company is in line with the outlooks of all the interest holders of the concern and must be based on the stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ aims. Most transnational companies that have managed to be chief participants in the planetary concern market have history of effectual strategic direction steps and scenes. Such companies include the Coca-Cola Company. the Toyota Company. and the Hyundai Company among other transnational companies. Strategic direction is the anchor of a successful transnational company or planetary concern. Witcher A ; Chau ( 2010 ) Background survey For any company or concern to be competitory in the market. there must be a high degree and a good coordinated scheme direction which is the cardinal facet of tactics and end scene. Strategic direction is ever critical in offering the way to the concern and its ultimate success. In concern disposal. strategic direction and strategic consistence between the concern and its environment demands to be struck. In assorted companies. strategic direction is ever undertaken by a direction squad which is largely comprised of a Board of Directors among other stakeholders. Amason ( 2010 ) Different companies employ different strategic direction attacks in seeking to remain competitory in the concern environment. The direction boards in different companies apply different procedures of rating and commanding the concerns and the assorted industries that are involved with the company. This is the instance in two taking car companies. the Toyota and Hyundai companies. In measuring their competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ schemes. the two companies use assorted scheme direction processes. Despite put to deathing different strategic direction signifiers. both companies consider basic factors in strategically pull offing their concerns. Such include the size of the organisation and the demand to accommodate to the alterations of the concern environment. In order to accomplish the aims of any company. there are assorted facets and constructs that need to be explored. A strategic direction which is more structured may be employed in consideration to the size of the company. operations. demands and the positions of the stakeholders. Strategic direction plays a really of import function in determining the manner a concern is run or the success and accomplishments of a company. Nevertheless. strategic direction is ever tied to the ends. vision. mission and the aims of the company. In pull offing a company. the direction board or squad do work towards the positions and outlooks of the proprietors of the company or concern. Hitt. Ireland A ; Hoskisson ( 2009 ) Toyota Motor Corporation The Toyota Motor Corporation is based at Toyota at Aichi in Japan. The transnational company is an car manufacturer with a big employee base of over 400000 employees with the largest fabrication capacity of cars and specifically the celebrated vehicle trade name ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢ . It footings of universe gross. the Toyota Company sits at the 11th place and had manufactured an estimated 200 million vehicles in July 2012. Founded in 1937 as a household company by Kiichiro Toyoda. the company has been acute to strategically pull off its concerns. The Toyota Company has had a pick of leading that has embraced the benchmark of quality. perfect patterns and corporate duty in the aftermath of stiff competition and technological promotion in the planetary market. Borowski ( 2010 ) . The schemes of the company have been profoundly rooted in rules that have continued to better the regard for people. their scheme model as been pitching towards waste cutting. positive attitude edifice and maximal use of the built-in endowments of the workers. The Toyota Company has managed to make an feeling of societal duty in the planetary market. The company has exploited a figure of schemes with a position of being the best company in footings of merchandise quality and service proviso vis-a-vis matching turning customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands and technological promotion. The direction board of the Toyota Company has been vigil to clinch any chance in developing and turning the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth. a scheme that has gone a notch higher to see the company explore options of developing intercrossed autos among other market schemes. The implicit in scheme of the Toyota Company is rooted in honoring virtue and placing mistakes in an effort to hone the merchandise and service bringing. Through this basic scheme. the Toyota Company has managed to impel its influence and accomplish an extended client base. Magee ( 2008 ) . Strategy and direction The success of the Toyota Company is attributed to its strategic direction expression that has made them to stay competitory in the car market while keeping the quality and efficiency of their merchandises. The doctrine of direction at Toyota Company has continued to germinate over a long period of clip. This direction doctrine has been built on the original value of the company which was centered on Lean fabrication and the construct of production in clip. These two constructs have been critical in the development and growing of the company. The Toyota Company strives to bring forth designs of autos that are entirely ideal and perfect. In its thin fabrication policy. the company aims at accomplishing a client ideal production which will finally conglomerate to client satisfaction. In this pursuit. the Toyota Company has been bring forthing different theoretical accounts of autos in order to run into the demands. gustatory sensation and different penchants of its clients. Hino ( 2006 ) . This has enabled the company to stay competitory and to hold a wider market country. The concern schemes and managerial values have been jointly convened into a individual construction referred to as the Toyota WayÃ¢â¬â¢ . a. The Toyota Way The Toyota WayÃ¢â¬â¢ was one of the schemes that the Toyota Company adopted in order to assist them remain in front in the car industry. It is a set of values guidelines of behaviors that all the employees at Toyota are expected to encompass. The scheme had two chief pillars ; Continuous betterment and Respect for People. Liker A ; Jeffrey ( 2011 ) . All the behavior guidelines and values of the Toyota Company are summarized into major rules of encompassing challenge. endeavoring to better their services and merchandises. regard to clients. teamwork and a go and seeÃ¢â¬â¢ motto. This is a scheme that the company has employed to guarantee that the employees non divert from the chief aims of the company therefore heightening success in concern therefore working as a driving force towards an accomplishment. Liker ( 2003 ) . The scheme has besides aided the formation of individuality and has kept the spirit of quality and service which has helped the company to be outstanding among other car makers. Alongside the Toyota Way are four other constituents that complement the scheme. These constituents include direction determinations that are based on long term deliberations and a comprehensive job work outing procedure. Further. the facet of concentrating on the development of the people has added a batch of value to the organisation. Consequently. the Toyota Company has embraced the art of organisational acquisition through work outing the root jobs continuously in the organisation. Ono ( 1988 ) B. Worldwide establishment The Toyota Company has used a universe presence scheme that has made them be a common family name in footings of car development. Through intensive selling and strategic direction. the company has expanded enormously therefore set uping mills in a bulk countries in the universe that trade with piecing and fabrication of different types of vehicles. The Company has set subdivision mills in states like South Africa. Turkey. Japan. India. The United States of America. Brazil. France. the United Kingdom. and Columbia and has late established mills in Thailand. Mexico. Malaysia. Argentina. Pakistan. Vietnam. Russia. Egypt and Mexico. In this mode. the company has been able to run into the lifting demand for cars and have provides a big assortment of cars therefore giving the clients the big assortment to take from. This is a scheme that has ensured that the merchandises of Toyota Company are accessed by most people around the Earth. The scheme of world-wide constitution does do a company to be widely known and become easier to be identified with. c. Electric engineering Strategic direction is all about researching the possible options that can help a company to be elevated above its rivals. This means that every enforced scheme demands to be suited to efficaciously accomplish the mission. executable to guarantee that it is applicable and that the scheme is accepted by the stakeholders. The direction squad at Toyota Company has explored the application of electric engineering which is executable. acceptable and suited. In this regard. the Toyota Company has gone a long manner in let go ofing intercrossed electric vehicles into the car market. It has been the first company to present and sell intercrossed electric vehicles. therefore determining the face of the car industry. In 1997. the company introduced the Toyota Prius and started bring forthing vehicles that were smaller but keeping the epicurean touch. Such autos like Lexus and Camry were received into the car industry with exhilaration. a mark of an effectual strategic direction execution. Anderson A ; Judy Anderson ( 2010 ) . In 2012 October. the Toyota Prius became the loanblend auto that was best sold in the whole universe and this earned the Toyota Company about 2. 8 million units. This high sale was replicated in most parts of the universe. Later in 2012 October. the company was the first to fabricate a rider auto that was intercrossed and a motor vehicle loanblend that was one stopper in theoretical account. This theoretical account was availed to around 80 parts and states worldwide. The company has an purpose of accomplishing the launch of a 20 intercrossed vehicles theoretical accounts at the terminal the twelvemonth 2015. Hyundai Motor Company. The Hyundai Motor Company has been a chief participant in the motor industry merely like the Toyota Company. It is a transnational automotive company with itÃ¢â¬â¢s headquartering in South Korea in Seoul. Founded in 1967. Hyundai is ranked the Forth in footings of car fabricating holding sold about 3. 6 million vehicles in the twelvemonth 2010. Hyundai is the largest car company that is integrated with an employee base of around 75000 people working in the mills worldwide. Hyundai Company has applied strategic direction in its success narrative. The company has set up 6 development and research centres across the universe. The company has besides an established centre in California for planing cars specifically for the markets in the United States of America. Hyundai Company has applied assorted signifiers of scheme to stay every bit competitory. The Hyundai Company has been able to set up a system of quality direction which has gone away to assist the company achieve the position of a major participant in car industries and machineries globally. In this sense. the company has realized a top category service supplier position. Lansbury. Chung. Sok Suh. Kwon A ; Ho Kwon ( 2007 ) a. Merchandise development. Hyundai has strived to better the quality degrees of their merchandises through application of alone processs. The company has applied pilot production counterpart researching by centre applied scientists in an purpose to run into the coveted degrees of production. The pilot production is a scheme that Hyundai Company used to avoid jobs during the production of cars in mass. Through the big pilot workss. Hyundai Company is able to guarantee there is quality in the production of its theoretical accounts. The company is besides endeavoring towards accomplishing a perfect merchandise quality in order to be at the helm of net income devising. Henry ( 2008 ) b. Outsourcing Outsourcing has been portion of HyundaiÃ¢â¬â¢s scheme to keep the quality of merchandises they offer. This is a scheme that amalgamates assorted parts makers who manufacture specific car parts before the parts are assembled by Hyundai to organize complete cars. This scheme contravenes the Toyota policy whereby the fabrication of the cars is done wholesomely by the company. The Hyundai Company outsources companies which make parts. The outsourced parts are sub-assembled into some faculties which are farther assembled into concluding cars. This strategic direction facet has made the Hyundai Motors Company to salvage a batch in footings of net incomes. Through outsourcing. the company has been able to switch its concentration more on selling and merchandise development and non to worry about the production of parts. This facet of the Hyundai production theoretical account has been advantageous to the company as it accumulates more resources and channels them towards selling and bettering on its merchandises. c. Advanced doctrine and Quality inventions strategies The accomplishments made by the Hyundai Motors have been as a consequence of quality inventions. The company. through strategic direction variety meats. has weathered the challenges of hostile and competitory concern environment through application of invention. There has been an addition in client satisfaction which has proved that the Hyundai Company has the ability to marshal monolithic portions in the market. As a consequence of aggressive and intensive inventions. Hyundai has come up with vehicles which meet the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands. wants and comfort. This has been in line with the accomplishment of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s aim of run intoing client satisfaction and conveying ultimate elegance. enjoyment and making assurance in its clients. The manner and luxury that is aimed at by the Hyundai Company is thereby achieved. This scheme has ensured that Hyundai Company stands out in footings of category and design. doing its merchandises popular among people worldwide. Despite the turning ferocious competition in the cars industry. Hyundai Company has managed to remain at the top in footings of quality and market base as a consequence of its direction doctrine which is advanced. Its scheme has ensured that there is a clear cut for the hereafter of the Company non go forthing the clients behind. HyundaiÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine has seen an increased favour among the clients due to its endeavoring to do merchandises of good quality and its chief end of puting accent on the satisfaction and efficiency of its merchandises to the clients. Hyundai has continued to be a planetary trade name name in cars. This has been boosted by the fact that the company has been making an feeling of equity and transparence in footings of the acceptable and expected concern moralss. d. Expansion of production Hyundai Company has employed the scheme of market enlargement as a manner to guarantee it achieves its chief aims. It has increased the portions of its export in the market internationally and domestically. During the economic recession in the twelvemonth 2009. Hyundai still managed to export 1. 3 million vehicles amidst a production capacity of 1. 6 million units. This scheme ensured that the company stayed at the top of car fabrication and assembly industries when other participants were variously affected by the recession. Its selling scheme and direction scheme strength is farther exhibited in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success in increasing its market portions in the United States of America. This has gone a long manner in bettering on the quality of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s merchandises. Hyundai has besides extended its fight in prosecuting in abroad concerns since the late ninetiess. It has established its merchandises in Alabama. Montgomery among other countries. In North America. HyundaiÃ¢â¬â¢s works was ranked 2nd in the degree of productiveness. e. Electric vehicles Just like the Toyota Company. the Hyundai Motor Company has embraced the usage of electricity in the industry of vehicles. The company has introduced a intercrossed electric car to fit the increasing technological promotion. In 2008 November. the company introduced the first electric auto which was facilitated by the engineering of Li polymer battery. In using the electricity engineering. Hyundai Company aimed at accomplishing edification. manner and category in order to stay every bit competitory as possible. Chris. Masrur. A ; Gao ( 2011 ) . The scheme of using electricity engineering has ensured that the company has been at par with the other car manufacturers to guarantee that it does non lose its clasp on the top topographic point in the planetary concern. Society of Automotive Engineers ( 2000 ) . Decision. Strategic direction has been the centre of involvement for both the Toyota and Hyundai cars companies. Both have gone out of their manner to set up planetary markets and have embraced the usage of electricity in car development. Toyota Company manufactures its ain vehicles from abrasion while the Hyundai Company opts to outsource for parts makers in order to cut down the costs incurred. The function of strategic direction is apparent in the two cars companies as both do hold a squad or a board of directors that is ever tasked with the duty of explicating policies to assist the company turn to transcendent highs. The board reexamining possible schemes in the companies does work towards realizing the purposes and aims of the companies. The ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ wants can neer be ignored in the strategic direction procedure. Mentions Allen C. Amason ( 2010 ) . Strategic Management: From Theory to Practice. New york: Taylor A ; Francis. Anthony Henry ( 2008 ) . Understanding Strategic Management. NY. Oxford University Press. Arkadi Borowski ( 2010 ) . Report on the Toyota Company. United kingdom: GRIN Verlag. Barry J. Witcher. Vinh Sum Chau ( 2010 ) . Strategic Management: Principles and Practice. United kingdom: Cengage Learning EMEA. Chris Mi. M. Abul Masrur. David Wenzhong Gao ( 2011 ) . Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives. United kingdom: John Wiley and Sons. Curtis Darrel Anderson. Judy Anderson ( 2010 ) . Electric and Hybrid Cars: A History. United kingdom: McFarland. David Magee ( 2008 ) . How Toyota Became # 1: Leadership Lessons from the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Greatest Car Company. United kingdom: Penguin Group. Jeffrey Liker ( 2003 ) . The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Greatest Manufacturer. McGraw Hill Professional. Liker. Jeffrey ( 2011 ) . The Toyota Way: Management Principles and Field book ( eBook ) . New york: McGraw-Hill Professional. Michael A. Hitt. R. Duane Ireland. Robert E. Hoskisson ( 2009 ) . Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization: Cases. Canada: Cengage Learning. Russell D. Lansbury. Chung-sok So. Chung-Sok Suh. Sung-ho Kwon. Seung-Ho Kwon ( 2007 ) . The Global Korean Motor Industry: The Hyundai Motor CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Global Strategy. Seoul. Taylor A ; Francis Satoshi Hino. ( 2006 ) . Inside the Mind of Toyota: Management Principles for Digesting Growth. Productivity Press. Society of Automotive Engineers ( 2000 ) . Hybrid electric vehicles. Society of Automotive Engineers. Nov 1. Taiichi Ono ( 1988 ) . Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-scale Production. Tokyo: Productivity Press.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Promoting Appropriate Behavior and Respect for Others within the Classroom - Essay Example It is clear from the discussion that classrooms are becoming exceedingly diverse these days mainly because of the influx of immigrants and also because of transiency. Under such circumstances creating a classroom, the community is one of the earliest responsibilities of a teacher. However, to create respect for diversities and build positive identities, the teacher should set some ground rules from the very first day such as treating classmates with respect, respecting their personal belongings, listening to the views of others and responding after sentence(s) are finished. Ã This paper illustrates that the teacher can follow the positive reinforcement outlined by SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Behaviorist Theory. According to Skinner Ã¢â¬Å"behavior is a function of its consequences and the learner will repeat the desired behavior if a positive reinforcement (a pleasant consequence) follows the behaviorÃ¢â¬ . Behavior which is reinforced is strengthened; keeping this in mind the teacher can i ntroduce a behavior chart in which the student who behaves the best and is most polite and helpful will get a Ã¢â¬Å"shining starÃ¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"smiley faceÃ¢â¬ against his/her name. The students should also be warned of dire consequences if they exhibit inappropriate behavior towards their classmates or bully them. Similarly, the teacher must herself use positive phrases when giving feedback and during error correcting. In order to instill respect for others, the teacher must ask the students to provide feedback for the others without mocking, ridiculing or passing personal remarks. The teacher must ensure that her students understand why it is important to respect each other.Ã
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Construction Engineering - Assignment Example When the constructed facility is offered proper management and maintenance, the facility may last 100 years or more; the facility is also capable of serving different functions within the specified time. The actual lifetime of a property is dependent on a number of factors, including the quality of design, the durability of the materials used for the construction, the quality of the facility and the technology used (Edwards, Bartlett and Dickie 2-7). Other factors determining the lifetime of the facility include the local climate and the location, extent of use and the damage caused by human errors and natural disasters. The components of a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle include the initiation phase, which entails the determination of the timing and the scope of the given project. The second component is the planning phase, where the detailed planning of the project takes place, and the actions aimed at the completion of the plan are started. The third is the execution phase, where the action items are implemented, and physical deliverables are delivered. The fourth component is the close-out phase, which covers the wrap-up of the project. It entails summarizing the lessons and the successes of the project to the different stakeholders (Edwards, Bartlett & Dickie 2-7). Qn. 2. The problems facing the Canadian construction industry include global climate change. With the increasing focus on the energy consumed, and the carbon dioxide released by different building models. For this reason, industry players are obligated to work hard, towards the renovation or the replacement of the buildings that donÃ¢â¬â¢t offer a minimal environmental effect. For instance, achieving carbon neutrality, while at the same time ending up with a considerable return on investment has forced industry experts to promote the reduction of fossil-fuel consumption (Ontario Ministry of Infrastructure). For these different reasons, industry leaders are forced to renovate existing facilities an d to develop new building models. The second challenge is the aging infrastructure, where buildings and other infrastructure like roads need to be changed, redeveloped or renovated, depending on their economic and environmental impact. For example, in some economies, statistics show that traffic congestion costs the economy, more than $67.5 billion a year, through fuel wastage and lost productivity. Further, construction industry leaders faced the challenge of replacing substandard bridges and roads, which are mentioned as factors contributing to highway accidents (Ontario Ministry of Infrastructure). There is the challenge of a shrinking workforce, noting that Canadian statistics show that, as of 2016, there will not be enough people to replace the retiring workforce. This is a challenge, because the reduction in the workforce will reduce the capacity of the industry to deliver the developments, and the changes desired. There is the challenge of a declining productivity of construc tion firms. This is mainly caused by the competitiveness required from industry players, which is forcing some to exit the industry. As compared with the productivity of the non-farm productive areas over the years, which has grown by about 200 percent, the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Effect of Values and Principles in Social Care This essay gives an explanation in what way social care values and principles effect practice. Social care is a career where people partner with others who are disadvantaged, have special needs or marginalized. Interventions to the needy are given and funded by independent agencies, or statutory organizations that support young adults, older people and children in their day to day services (Payne 2008). These agencies provide services that the disadvantaged are not able to provide for themselves. Social caregivers may work for example, with people with physical disabilities, homeless, children in residential care, people with drug dependency, older people, and families in the society. Social care is achieved through the planning of individualized and group programs of care based on certain needs. All the interventions and involvements are based on established thorough knowledge and understanding of lifespan development. There are certain values which are vital when giving social care to the needy (Payne 2008). Social care values strengthen all the skills, training and competences that caregivers have (Gergen 2001). They are the values which make a difference in the delivery of care services. It is important that people chosen to give the services are the right people with the values needed to deliver care and support. My value base and its relationship to the social care values encompasses the principles and standards which enhance my work when giving care. I regard dignity and respect for other people very highly. I derived all these moral cultures from my parent and also based on my Christianity belief. Individuals of personality are courteous. In my culture, respect among children and parents are reciprocal. It is a traditional goal that all parents should educate their children how to respect people, also parent give their children similar respect due to them. Similarly, in my belief, it is a special obligations to achieve this in the Biblical commandments. According to the book of Exodus 20:12 Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Honor thy father and thy mother. This identical word is treated to say that individual dignity is enormously significant. Preserving parents dressed and nourished when they could no longer act for themselves certainly maintains their dignity. Similarly, aiding parents to and fro of their home conserves their dignity. With respect and dignity in mind, I will be able to treat all people respectfully regardless of their ethnicity, age, and other factors that could be prejudicial. I recognize and support the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs and give the needy the care and support they deserve without prejudice. Every human being has a right to choose how they live. Every person has equal opportunity and choice for life. Giving social care should not reap them off their choice and control in their lives. Making sure that individual are completely participating in any choice that touches their care, as well as their own choices (like whatever to eat, whatever attire and whatever hour to go their bed) and open decisions around the facility (like menu design or employing new employees). Caregivers should not assume that individuals cannot make choices. Caregivers are to have the necessary skills to embrace individual with cognitive problems in choice making. Politely conversing with clients to understand his/her needs are crucial in enhancing quick recovery and satisfaction (Moonie Windsor 2005). The service providers need to acknowledge their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ personal beliefs and identities by availing effective services to their independent of the nature and diversity of the same. The client would not feel separated from the environment he/she is in. Lastly, the service providers should uphold confidentiality. Service users and patients entrust staff in various organizations with sensitive information relating to their health issues and other personal matters. This is done as part of seeking advice, treatment and support. The service users do this in confidence with expectations that the health workers will value their privacy and act appropriately. In some cases such as mental sickness, patients may be unaware of their rights in regard to confidential information. This, however, does not mean that the duty of confidence should be dimi nished. It is vital that patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ trust between caregivers and users is maintained. All social workers have their own set of morals and internal value systems. Sometimes, social workers are faced with circumstances in which their morals and values conflict with their clients. The principles of social care values must be derived from a personÃ¢â¬â¢s human rights (Fisher, Blackmore, Snaith Seamons, 2005, p. 84). Client confidentiality is a vital component of a client-health worker relationship. It ensures that personal and private information divulged by the client will be kept out of reach and safe from unauthorized people, both inside the workplace and out of it (Fisher, Blackmore, Snaith Seamons 2005, p. 85). It is an unspoken rule that a clients permission must be asked before any sharing of information to unauthorized people. Although confidentiality should be practiced at all times, it can have limitations. A health worker can breach confidentiality if a client becomes a threat to himself or to others. Health workers can reveal client information to unauthor ized personnel when a client verbalizes that he was involved in a crime or if he will be committing a crime. An example of a real life confidentiality dilemma is, I was confronted with a scenario when I was taking care of a teenage girl who was pregnant. I was involved in activities to assist her go through the pregnancy and so we created a good relationship. The girl confided in me and would share her sentiments with me boldly. I was, however, faced with a dilemma. As the pregnancy advanced, the girl started changing her attitude. She was no longer open with her feelings and many times preferred to be alone and depressed. Communication became difficult because my patient was not willing to open up. After a while she attempted an abortion which was not successful. Instead, the girl ailed and I had to be with her until she recovered. I uphold values which are against abortion. I believe in other alternatives to abortion and totally against the practice. Yet I had to care for a patient who had gone through an abortion without judging or despising her. At one time, I wanted to change course an d seek another patient to engage with ,which, according to social care ethics is wrong as it is discrimination based on my moral beliefs which denies the patient her right to choose what is best for her. Sociological concepts examine the nature, causes, effects and experiences of the marginalized groups within the society. Discrimination is a prejudicial handling of people on the basis with the group or class they belong to. Discrimination can be direct, indirect, unconscious and institutional. Direct discrimination happens when the caregiver or somebody is regarded less positively than another individual for the reason that protected attribute they ought to or are supposed to have or since they partner with somebody who has a secure quality. Indirect discrimination on its own, is a situation, decree, procedure or even a manner concerns to everybody, but has an unbalanced influence on an individual with a safeguarded quality. It can be within one right if one can show that one actually proceeded sensibly for a comprehensive occupational aim. The unconscious discrimination is that manner of attitudes which involved without thought or aim, but extremely throughout practice or prejudice d ideas. Individuals discerning unconsciously will regularly respond with shock when their conduct is indicated. The last one which is the Institutional discrimination, it refers to the strategies of the domineering race/culture/genderorganizationsand the manners of the characters who dominate these institutions and apply rules that are meant to a disparity and / or damaging influence on marginal race/culture/gender parties. Discrimination,formulating support against others for the reason of race or ethnicity(Hellman Deborah 2008). Discrimination leads to the formation of the marginalized groups, which are the specific classes of people who are socially excluded or blocked from accessing rights, opportunities, and resources such as employment, housing, health care, etc. Such socially excluded people are blocked from participating in the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s social, economic, and political life (Sakomoto Pitner 2005). Consequently, they suffer psychologically and emotionally, and this may threaten their health with diseases and sometimes cause death. Examples of marginalized groups include: people living in poverty, disabled people, drug addicts, old people, uneducated, homeless people, and the young careers (Sakomoto Pitner 2005). Using the social construct of employment, employers have a notion that the disabled persons are less productive and are more prone to accidents (Sakomoto Pitner 2005). Thus, they end up being discriminated, and yet they can perform the duties if assigned the job responsibilities. The effects of discrimination on Disabled, according to Payne (2008), disabled people with enough intelligence and capability to work are denied chances by employers assuming that they are more of burdens than employees within a company. Such people lose chances of employment in favor of non-disabled people. Social justice and social welfare values also promote the anti-discriminatory practice. This implies that all the people within the society are treated fairly by ensuring legal rights and optimization of well being. This value also ensures that the service providers balance the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s individual rights and those of others. This is achieved by offering all the service users equal chances without making compromises. Lastly, empowerment is another value that underpins ant-discriminatory practices. Empowerment allows all the individuals opportunities to take responsibilities without the fear of intimidation. Moreover, empowerment allows individuals to make individual decisions and judgments freely in a social care setting, as long as they comply with the set social standards (Gergen 2001). Anti-discriminatory practice is an action taken to prevent discrimination against people on the basis of class, race, gender, or disability. This practice promotes equality at the workplaces, including the care setting (Thompson 2011). The three pieces of Legislation that underpin anti-discriminatory practice are; Firstly, Human Rights Act 1998, it is an Act of the European Convention on Human Rights, which allows individuals to impose 16 of the important moralities and options covered in a UK court of law. It obliges parliament and community organizations more responsible to UK people across the courts. The Act addresses the major rights that influence honestly on service delivery in the social care sectors and health care. The Act involves mostly important to dignity in care, involve the right to life, the right not to be endangered to unfeeling or humiliating therapy and the right to a personal life. Secondly, Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, it is an Act that coverings an extensive choice of subjects connecting to place of work, health, welfare and well-being through various sectors. It makes employees understand that , they have a general duty under the Act to look after one another also collaborate with establishmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ health and safety obligations. Also, it provides a safe procedure in the support of dignity in care. Thirdly, The Equality Act 2010, it is an Act that is used instead of anti-discrimination legislation. it brings collectively, balances and in several respects, covers the present equality rule. It objectives is to compose more harmonious, stronger and stress-free to go along in direction to make the social order better. The Equality Act guards individuals collecting care and the workers that deliver it from remaining nursed unlawfully because of some personalities that are safeguarded below the law. The Ã¢â¬Ësafeguarded personalitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ are: race, disability,gender relocation, maternity and pregnancy, religion or belief and age, and sex. In conclusion, it is very important that caregivers follow the rules and procedure so as to provide quality care service. Delivering care, in an approach that expresses esteem for a persons right and individualism is central to the profession. However, to sustain this objective can be challenging due to different influences such as mental injury and official issues such as the outcomes of ageism and short prospects of care. Effective social care profession will simply be achievable when all memberships of the interdisciplinary group communicate a collective conventional value.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Comb's are not high margin companies individually, and the internet is a great way to cut down on the sales cost and time to close for deals. As mentioned above, SAP offers two Ã¢â¬Å"solutionsÃ¢â¬ for Comb's: SAP Business One ND mynas All-in-One. SAP even discloses that 60% of their implementations fit into the SMB category (a large number considering it was earlier stated that 15% of revenue comes from such clients). The category is defined in a related article sponsored by SAP done by DC (a global market intelligence and advisory firm) the SMB category is made up of businesses with fewer than 1,000 employees. SAP Business One SAP Business One is targeted at companies from 10 to several hundred employees. It includes the basic CRM, manufacturing and finance components of the ERP software, the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"criticalÃ¢â¬ functions. It is billed as an ass to implement, understand and upgrade solution that integrates with Microsoft Office applications. It's repeatedly referred to as an affordable solution which solves the problems of multiple systems for multiple uses (what ERP does for any business). The following is an outline of the capabilities of SAP Business One, which is implemented through business partners.Most companies have some form of application or software system that handles financial, inventory and customer data, intelligence and reporting. 9 www. Sap. Com Looking through the demos available through SAP's website, the interfaces appear to e straightforward and robust, but not an open-the-box solution such as Microsoft Office. There would still need to be some kind of training to get an organization up to speed on the software. Case in Point: Annexation Federal One organization that successfully used this approach is Annexation Federal, a systems integrator to U. S. Federal government agencies.The company, which designs, sources, and installs voice and data telecommunications systems, struggled with a variety of legacy systems from prior mergers. The company needed a single, integrated solution that could handle the omelet demands of managing high-end telecommunications projects while providing greater flexibility, better reporting, and enhanced data visibility throughout the organization. Annexation Federal saw a demonstration of the product, which proved to its financial team that SAP Business One could support the company's current and future accounting and financial systems needs.The organization recognized that the SAP Business One features were precisely what was needed to help manage the order- to- cash process accurately tracking order and sales from multiple vendors, billing contracts in a timely manner, monitoring work in progress, ND accurately calculating contract profitability. Implementing SAP Business One in less than six weeks, the company was able to create a seamless path from initial quote to purchase order through 7 invoices.With SAP Business One, we were able to streamline multiple solutions dow n to Just one and simultaneously achieve much wider functionality than we had previously, says Duane Taylor, vice president of finance for Annexation Federal. Today, the company is able to more effectively get the information it needs from its system, creating dramatic benefits. For example, the reconciliation of financial data at he end of each fiscal period once took as much as three weeks with employees working overtime. With SAP Business One, the company generates the needed department were redirected, saving more than $300,000 annually.Accounts receivable collections improved as a result of the availability of information, saving $1. 5 million. In addition, soft benefits such as improved communications, better visibility, and enhanced customer responsiveness have also been noted. The net result: Annexation Federal received payback on its investment in Just four months. (from SAP. Com) mynas All-in-One mynas All-in-One consists of solutions which are re-packaged and industry spe cific. They are versions of the mynas Business Suite engineered for turn-key application.These solutions are created to enable companies in the SMB range to purchase the capabilities of SAP software without any of the implementation issues associated with modifying the system. These are implemented through business partners such as Barrington and MM. In addition to these solutions, SAP also describes on their website the success stories through press releases, news articles, examples and case studies for particular industries. Qualified mynas All-in-One solutions are under development worldwide. And several of these vertical and cross- industry solutions are currently available in North America.Examples include industries such as high tech manufacturing, semiconductor manufacturing, ISP businesses, pharmaceuticals, and beverages. A recent press release outlined the partnership with SAP and Citric: 8 Both software vendors traditionally have focused on the enterprise market but now ha ve Joined forces to make inroads into the SMB market. The solution will allow small and midsized customers to securely access their ERP applications from the road or from their home offices, the companies said. Citric will adopt SAP's licensing model ND has priced the Material solution at $139 per named user.Business One costs $3,700 per named user. 10 10 Rooney, Paula. Citric, SAP Join Forces To Target SMB Market Joint solution to be Material Presentation Server For Business One. CRY. January 17, 2005 9 SMB ERP oracle protect it. Headquartered in Redwood Shores California, Oracle has operated for over three decades and is currently the world's largest enterprise software company with over ten billion dollars in annual revenue. The company has grown in part through organic growth and in part through acquisitions, including Peoples/JDK Edwards 2004), Retake (2005), and Entrance (2002).Oracle currently offers SMB solutions through both its Oracle and Peoples/JDK Edwards brand names wi th a vision to merge the solutions into a central Ã¢â¬ËFusion' platform. 11 Their company vision places an emphasis on three principles of the Inoperativeness Enterprise; to simplify, standardize, and automate. Oracle has integrated these principles into their own operations and focuses to incorporate them into the design of their software to better serve businesses worldwide. In June 2004, Oracle concluded that the enterprise segment was highly penetrated and the mid-market segments are large ND growing.In FYI 02/03 over 50% of application new license revenue came from companies under $1 billion. Oracle's market assessment concluded that they would move to target the US mid-market segment as they believe it to hold the greatest potential for incremental growth. 12 Their mid-market messaging will surround the idea of Ã¢â¬Ësimply business. Ã¢â¬Ë More specifically, Oracle looks to emphasize their affordability, simplicity, competitive, and growth aspects. 11 Presentation by Hide Kindle of Oracle in Seattle on Thursday, May 12 and www. Oracle. Com/solutions/mid/index. HTML 12 Oracle Presentation, June 2004 Ã¢â¬â Mid Market Special Edition Campaign Plan: HI IFFY SMB ERP oracle E-justness suite Ã¢â¬Ëspecial Edition' The current Oracle solution emphasizes their E-Business Suite. The suite specifically focuses on core business applications to streamline key business processes (financial, purchasing, inventory management, order management, manufacturing, and sales force automation). 13 To target businesses less than $100 million, Oracle offers a Ã¢â¬ËSpecial Edition' package which is basically a scaled down version of their full- business suite.It claims to be affordable, easy to install, and simple to implement for a rapid and measurable return on investment. Oracle has chosen to sell this package through regional partners rather than directly through their sales representatives. 14 The differentiating factor that Oracle focuses on is that they are the o nly package with comprehensive, built-in business intelligence. What this meaner to SMB is that they will be able to manage, access, and analyze their business data very rapidly.This ability to synchronize information can give a company the ability to quickly Enterprise The current Peoples/JDK Edwards SMB solution is targeted at companies that have begun to outgrow their current systems. It is positioned as footwear to meet a company's current needs with the flexibility and adaptability to also meet needs in the future. The product line is branded under JDK Edwards (Enterprise Solutions, Rapid Start, and World Express). Emphasis is placed on the comprehensive industry-specific functionality, affordability of the package, and flexibility to fit into a current and changing business. 314 Conversation with Keith Gosling of Hitachi Consulting in Seattle on Monday, May 16 Presentation by Hide Kindle of Oracle in Seattle on Thursday, May 12 The package is a pre-integrated set of modular ap plications with built-in, underspecified functionality. At this point the JDK Edwards sales force continues to sell the JDK Edwards product. They continue to promote the product but at some point in the next 2-3 years I predict that the sales forces of JDK Edwards and Oracle will converge in anticipation of the Fusion release.Oracle Fusion Hide Kindle, Oracle SMB Manager, noted that there are three primary Ã¢â¬Ëhot topics' currently facing Oracle. 1 5 These include business intelligence (81), corporate governance (SOX), and budgeting/planning. Over the next several years Oracle aspires to focus on these hot topics in conjunction with taking the best pieces of each of their three primary footwear packages (Oracle, Peoples, JDK Edwards) to integrate into a complete Ã¢â¬ËFusion' package. Oracle plans to roll-out individual fusion applications by 2007 and a complete Fusion Application Suite by 2008.Oracle's primary sales point surrounds this idea of Ã¢â¬Ëhow you package' the produ ct. They see the advantages of Oracle Fusion in four general categories. The first is scalability. Here they argue that with the package you will be able to implement the package and it will have the ability to grow alongside your business. Price is the second advantage. Oracle plans to package the cost of software, services, and licensing to make the option an attractive and affordable one. A third advantage is functionality.By taking the best pieces of the current software packages, Oracle argues that functionality will be a distinct advantage. By using partners on a regional level, Oracle sees the ease and effectiveness of implementation as a fourth advantage of Fusion. 15 This rapid transition from stand-alone products to an integrated suite does not come without issues. Two primary disadvantages of Oracle's Fusion Suite are integration and support. More specifically, Oracle is going to face some major challenges over hose next few years as they look to roll-out a new package wh ile supporting current customers. 3 SMB ERP Microsoft Microsoft Business Solutions offers a variety of ERP solutions for medium sized business entities. These solutions cover most industries and can be scaled down to any size business. Several of the software solutions are a complete ERP solution. All of the solutions offer an accounting and finance core. Many of the solutions integrate with Microsoft Office software so it is easy for new users to manage and leverage the data. In addition, Microsoft offers several solutions for certain aspects of business footwear solutions. 6 These additional solutions include: Business Network which allows streamlining collaboration through the use of XML templates, CRM to support marketing and customer service, Enterprise Reporting or Small Business Financial which are accounting applications, Retail Management System for point of sale and retail applications, Small Business Products for e-business, and Business Contact Manager for managing custo mer data. Microsoft Kappa Microsoft Kappa is an ERP solution with a price range from $kick to $kick.Currently, about 4,500 firms are using this software. Microsoft provides local partners to assist with implementation of this software and ongoing support. The benefits of Kappa is its unique design Ã¢â¬â one database, one toolbox, one business logic, one source code Ã¢â¬â meaner customizations and upgrades are easy to make. In addition, maintenance costs are low. 17 1617 www. Microsoft. Com/Boisterousness's/Default. Asps www. Software re. Com 14 Nucleus Research, a global provider of research focused on IT return on investment conducted a study on Microsoft Kappa. 8 It found the following: 75 percent of customers had achieved a positive ROI from their Microsoft Kappa deployment with n average payback period of 23 months. 56 percent of Microsoft Kappa customers were able to reduce staffing costs as a result of their Microsoft Kappa deployment. 44 percent of Microsoft Kappa custo mers were able to reduce IT costs as a result of their Microsoft Kappa deployment. 75 percent of Microsoft Kappa customers reported improved operations and visibility as a result of their Microsoft Kappa deployment.Kappa is a multi-language, multi-currency ERP solution with core strengths in manufacturing and e-business together with strong functionality for the wholesale distribution and business services industries. By providing integrated, adaptable functionality within one open, scalable platform, Microsoft Kappa helps mid-market and companies across the globe seize opportunity and gain competitive advantage Extra is designed to help scale your business by providing internet functionality.This internet functionality can be used to collaborate with customers, partners, suppliers, and employees. Microsoft Kappa supports the entire business with functionality spanning manufacturing, distribution, supply chain management, reject management, financial management, customer relationshi p management, human resource management and business analysis. It also tailors itself to local legal and accounting requirements while supporting multiple languages and currencies. 18 www. Microsoft. Com/Boisterousness's/Kappa/kappa_ROI_report. SSP Microsoft Kappa Case Study:19 The vision of North Atlantic Industries (ANA) is to become the preeminent global supplier of innovative military and commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) solutions that fulfill the requirements of companies in the aerospace, industrial, and defense markets. ANA achieved a positive return on its investment in Microsoft Boisterousness's Kappa software by reducing inventory costs, realizing direct savings in personnel costs, and increasing the productivity of employees through reduced downtime.Annual return on investment (ROI) 128% Payback period (years) 0. 60 Net present value (NP) 499,888 Average yearly cost of ownership 146,626 Microsoft Great Plains Microsoft Great Plains is an ERP solution with a price range fr om $ask to $kick. With a lower price range than Kappa, Great Plains is positioned to support lower midwicket firms. It provides functionality for
Friday, January 10, 2020
The income tax of the United States of America, be it federal, state and local, has changed over time. Different circumstances pushed the government to create taxation and to amend the existing taxation laws. During the pre-Revolutionary War era in the 1700s, taxes were not imposed by the colonial government as their need for tax revenue did not exist. The colonies, on the other hand, had greater responsibilities therefore, had greater need for tax revenue. Because of this, different types of taxes were imposed by the colonies. The southern colonies imposed taxes on imports and exports while the middle colonies imposed taxes on property and a poll tax on each adult male. The New England colonies, on the other hand, collected taxes through property taxes, income taxes and excise taxes. When the English Parliament realized the need for money to pay for the French war, it imposed different taxes to the American colonies through the Stamp Act which was enacted in 1765. Later on, this Stamp Act was revised to include taxes for permits, newspapers, legal documents and playing cards. The Townsend Act was later on enacted by the Parliament to include taxes for paint, tea and paper . After a decade of paying taxes, there was much resistance to the tax imposed by the Parliament. During the Boston Tea Party in 1773, colonists, dressed as Native Americans, threw 342 chests of tea from a ship of the British East India Company to the Boston Harbor. In 1775, Isaac Backus during the Massachusetts Assembly said that Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not all America now appealing to Heaven against injustice of being taxedÃ¢â¬ ¦We are persuaded that an entire freedom from being taxed by civil rulersÃ¢â¬ ¦is not mere favor from any men in the world but a right and property granted us by God, who commands us to stand fast in itÃ¢â¬ . Taxation is considered as one of the factors that led to American War for Independence hence, when America gained its Independence, Article 1, Section 9, Article 4 of the U. S. Constitution in 1787 declared that there be no capitation or any direct taxes imposed on the citizens. The national government had very little responsibilities during these times and relied only on donations given by the States for its revenue. However, in 1789, the Founding Fathers realized that it could not function at its efficiency if it relied only on other governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ donations hence the Federal Government was granted the authority to impose taxes. The sensitivity to taxation was still existing at this point in time hence the government has to be careful on how it impose taxes so as to minimize resistance from its people. Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury in the 1790s, decided that a Ã¢â¬Å"sin taxÃ¢â¬ was imposed . Through the Ã¢â¬Å"sin taxÃ¢â¬ , only items which society thinks is deviant or vice were taxed such as distilled spirits, alcohol and whiskey. However, this still led to the armed revolt called Whisky Rebellion by a group of South Pennsylvania farmers. Still during the 1790s, the Federal Government imposed direct taxes to owners of houses, slaves and land. However, when Thomas Jefferson was elected to office in 1802, these direct taxes were removed and for the succeeding 10 years, only excise taxes were imposed. The reason for this was because he realized the inverse relationship of tax rates and tax revenue wherein the higher the taxes imposed on the citizens, the slower the economy grows hence the tax revenue declines. A cut in the rate of tax means that income for the family will become higher, expenditures become higher and hence, the economy experiences growth. During the 1812 War, the need for tax revenue resurfaced again hence taxes on the sales of gold, jewelry, watches and silver were imposed. Treasury notes were also issued to raise money. However, in 1817, the Congress revoked these taxes and for the next 40 years, government revenue was based on high customs duties and sale of government or public land . In 1861, when the Civil War erupted, the Revenue Act of 1861 was enacted. This Act restored the previous taxes on personal income. This tax was similar to the modern income tax because it was based on a gradual taxation of withholding tax from its source. A person earning $600 to $10,000 a year paid 3% tax. Persons with income higher than $10,000 paid a higher rate of tax. In 1862, the debt created by the war was rising at a rate of $2 million per day hence there was another need for the government to increase its revenue. Because of this, the Congress passed another tax imposition on items such gunpowder, playing cards, telegrams, iron, pianos, yatchs, drugs, among others. After the Civil War, the need for revenue declined and hence the income tax was abolished and only the excise taxes remained from 1868 to 1913. The War Revenue Act in 1899 was enacted to raise funds for the Spanish-American War. Government revenues, thru this Act, was raised through sales of bonds, tax imposition on recreational facilities, beer and tobacco. However, the Supreme Court realized that the people of America were becoming aware that the high tarrifs and excise taxes were not good to the economic welfare of the nation and that these taxes were usually paid by the less affluent citizens. Hence, there was an agreement that business income instead was imposed tax. By 1913, Congress enacted a new income tax law which imposes 1% to 7% for persons with income above $500,000. These people earning above $500,000 was only 1% of the total United States population . During World War I, the United States needed to increase its revenue again to fund the war. The 1916 Act raised the tax imposition from 1% to 2% and could go as high as 15% for those with income of more than $1. 5 million. By 1917, the government still needs further government revenue to pay for the war, hence the War Revenue Act of 1917 was enacted. Through this Act, exemptions were lowered and tax rates increased that those who earn $40,000 needs to pay 16% tax rate. In 1918, the tax rates were further increased. Those citizens paying 1% had to pay 6%. The highest rate in 1917 was 15% but during 1918, this was increased to 77%. Due to this increase in tax rates, government revenue increased from $761 million during 1916 to $3. 6 billion in 1918. After the war, the government revenue rose and the government decided to cut taxes to 1% bottom rate and 25% top rate . The Great Depression during the late 1920s and early 1930s pushed the government to once again increase the tax rates. The Tax Act of 1932 was enacted and by 1936, the bottom tax rate was at 4% and the top tax rate reached 79%. When the World War II came, another price hike came into place which altered the tax rates. Those with taxable income of less than $500 paid a bottom rate of 23% taxes while those earning taxable income of over a million dollars paid about 94% of taxes . The tax structure in the United States was also heavily altered in that the number of taxpayers increased from 4 million during 1939 to roughly 43 million during the World War II. Throughout all these years of implementing taxation, the government learned a very important lesson which until now is being valued by government officials and economists and has affected the tax laws enacted in the country Ã¢â¬â the marginal dollar is far more important to the economy compared to the tax rate being used. The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 was implemented with this important lesson in mind. Unlike the previous taxation laws, this Act was intended to focus on marginal tax rates and it also included consumption taxes. However, due to the deep recession experienced by the country in 1982, the government was once again faced with the need to increase tax rates to overcome budget deficits. Following the 1982 recession was an economic boom which lead the country to believe that marginal tax rates are very important for a strong economy. During the Reagan administration, tax rates were further reduced and had a broader base through the Tax Reform Act of 1986. This reduced tax rate from 50% to 28% while business taxes were reduced from 50% to 35% . In 1997, the Taxpayer Relief Actof 1997 was enacted. The significant party of this Act was the Per Child Tax credit which benefited the lower-income families. During the Bush administration in 2001, the government experienced a budget surplus of about $281 billion hence a tax cut was once again conducted . This tax cut included raising the Per Child Tax Credit from $500 to $1,000 per child, as well as increased the Dependent Child Tax Credit. Until now, this tax law is being implemented and is expected to boost economic growth for the country.